Secondary vine pests, and species under surveillance

 

With the modification of the phytosanitary protection practices of the vineyard, certain pests that were once harmful but which had disappeared with chemical control, are reappearing. It is therefore necessary to know them in order to know how to spot them.

On the other hand, the accidental introduction into the territory of non-native pests, but known for their harmful activity, requires monitoring them and therefore knowing them.

Finally, very hot summers and mild winters favor the establishment or at least the episodic presence of pests from the South which can disrupt the development of the vines.

Currently, five emerging health risks are under surveillance:

  • the leafhopper Orientus ishidae which has already been observed in Alsace. It can carry the phytoplasma of flavescence dorée ;
  • potential vectors of , other than blackwood Hyalesthes obsoletus ;
  • the Italian vine leafminer ( Antispila oinophylla ). It is a butterfly native to North America. It causes great damage in Italy because the larva attacks the leaves and burrows galleries in the leaf blade. It is responsible for a significant loss of leaf area;
  • potential vectors of Pierce's disease caused by Xylella fastidiosa , a responsible bacterium transmitted mainly by the leafhopper Homalodisca coagulata , which is not present in Europe. But it can be transmitted by several other endemic species of European vineyards.


Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Millière, 1867) (grapevine phycitis or Mediterranean grape berry moth, Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), is an episodic pest including the polyphagous caterpillar, causing more and more damage in vineyards located in the South of France, near the Mediterranean coast. This caterpillar is indeed attracted to the accumulation of sugar and decay. After the harvest, it can therefore be found in very large quantities in the rotten bunches that have remained on the vine. However, its presence remains conditioned by winter temperatures, because this insect is very sensitive to frost.

Among leafhoppers and the like (stinging-sucking insects), Penthimia nigra (Goeze, 1778) (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae), frequent in oak coppices, is a polyphagous species, which formerly was described as occasionally harmful on the vine, by its bites causing the leaves to wilt. This species is rather considered as a companion species (photo). Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus 1758), the spittlebug or frothy philene (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae), a very polyphagous species (photo), is known to transmit effectively Pierce's disease in Europe, but only on olive trees. By its deep nutritive stings, this insect can disorganize the tissues of young vine twigs and can cause desiccation of these.

 

Bibliography

Delbac L, Davidou L, Rouzes R (2015) Les ravageurs. Secondary vine pests. Union Girondine des Vins de Bordeaux, special issue, April, 65-68

Galet P (1982) Diseases and parasites of the vine. Volume II, animal parasites.

Kreiter S et al. (2008) Pests of the vine. Editions Féret, Bordeaux

 

Last change : 04/19/21
cryptoblades-PGros
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penthimia-nigra
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philaenus-spumarius3
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halyomorpha-raisin
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